Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes
S. Income statement and cash flow
In accordance with IAS 18 “Revenue”, revenue corresponds to the
value of goods and services sold in the ordinary course of business
by fully consolidated companies. It includes:
for directly owned and leased hotels, all revenue received from
clients for accommodation, catering and other services; and
for managed and franchised hotels, all management and franchise
The Group applies the guidance provided in IAS 18 to determine
whether it acts as the principal or an agent in its contractual hotel
management relationships. For the purpose of applying IAS 18, the
Group is considered as acting as the principal when it has exposure
to the significant risks and rewards associated with the rendering
of services. In this case, the revenue and related expenses are
reported separately in the income statement. When the above
criterion is not met, the Group is considered as acting as an agent
and only the remuneration corresponding to the agency fee is
recognized in revenue.
In accordance with IAS 18 “Revenue”, revenue is measured at
the fair value of the consideration received or receivable, net of
all discounts and rebates, VAT, other sales taxes and fair value of
customer loyalty programs.
Revenue from product sales is recognized when the product is
delivered and the significant risks and rewards of ownership are
transferred to the buyer.
Revenue from sales of services is recognized when the service
Revenue fromsales of loyalty programs is recognized on a straight-line
basis over the life of the cards in order to reflect the timing, nature
and value of the benefits provided.
When sales of products or services are covered by a customer
loyalty program, the revenue invoiced to the customer is allocated
between the product or the service sold and the award credits
given by the third party granting the loyalty points.The consideration
allocated to the award credits, which is measured by reference to
the fair value of the points granted, is deferred and recognized as
revenue when the customer redeems the award credits –
an award is received in exchange for converting the loyalty points.
Earnings before interest, tax, depreciation, amortization and rental
expense and share of profit of associates after tax (EBITDAR)
correspond to revenue less operating expense.
EBITDAR is used as a key management indicator.
It is also used to calculate the flow-through ratio and the reactivity
ratio. The flow-through ratio, which is used when revenue goes
up, corresponds to change in like-for-like EBITDAR/change in
like-for-like revenue. The reactivity ratio, used when revenue goes
down, is defined as 1 – (change in like-for-like EBITDAR/change in
S.3. Rental expense and Depreciation,
amortization and provision expense
Rental expense and depreciation, amortization and provision expense
reflect the operating costs of holding leased and owned assets. For
this reason, an additional sub-total has been included in the income
statement. Under this presentation:
EBITDA corresponds to gross profit after the operating costs of
holding leased assets;
EBIT corresponds to gross operating profit after the operating
costs of holding both leased and owned assets.This indicator is
also used as the benchmark for determining senior management
and other executive compensation, as it reflects the economic
performance of each business.
These two indicators are used regularly by the Group to analyze the
impact of the operating costs of holding assets on the consolidated
S.4. Operating profit before tax
and non-recurring items
Operating profit before tax and non-recurring items corresponds
to the results of operations of the Group’s businesses less the
related financing cost. Net financial expense and the share of profit
of associates after tax represent an integral part of consolidated
operating profit before tax and non-recurring items to the extent that
they contribute to the performance indicators used by the Group.
S.5. Restructuring costs
Restructuring costs correspond to all the costs incurred in connection
with restructuring operations.
S.6. Impairment losses
Impairment losses correspond to all the losses and provisions
recorded in accordance with IAS 36“Impairment of Assets” including
impairments of investments in associates.
S.7. Gains and losses on management
of hotel properties
Gains and losses on management of hotel properties arise from
the disposals of hotel assets.
S.8. Gains and losses on management
of other assets
This item corresponds to gains and losses on management of
fixed assets other than hotels and movements in provisions, as
well as other gains and losses on non-recurring transactions. The
concerned transactions are not directly related to the management
of continuing operations.
S.9. Operating profit before tax
Operating profit before tax corresponds to operating profit after
income and expenses that are unusual in terms of their amount and
frequency that do not relate directly to the Group’s ordinary activities.
Registration Document 2014